Ostracod Field Meeting 2014 - 17-18th May 2014
next field meeting of the TMS ostracod group will take place next
spring (weekend of 17-18 May 2014) in Quaternary/Recent localities of
north-east Essex (Marks Tey, Tollesbury saltmarsh, Cudmore Grove and
perhaps Stutton Ness if time) and will be organized by Prof. David J.
Horne (Queen Mary University of London) and Prof Alan Lord (Senckenberg
Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt). The transport
could be accomplished by train from London with some local
ostracodologist providing local transport. There are a number of
options locally for accommodation.
Those planning to attend should please notify Dave Horne as early as possible indicating if you are likely to attend for both days or just the Saturday.
Group Talks Meeting - 6th October 2012
The Ostracod Group of TMS will be
holding a talks meeting at the University of Sussex, Brighton, on
Saturday 6th October. Information on the talks programme, venue and
accomodation information and directions are available in the meeting handout (3.1Mb pdf).
More detailed directions to the campus (and additional maps) than those
in the handout can be accessed here.
Tides have forced us to retime the Dorset Fieldtrip until after
Easter, and the dates are Friday 27 to Sunday 29 April. We will spend
Saturday exploring The Fleet (Middle Jurassic and Recent collecting)
and Sunday morning Durlston Bay (Purbeck).
All TMS members
are welcome to attend the fieldtrip. Your
officers (Ian and
myself) will be staying in The Rembrandt Hotel, single
room £57 B&B per night. Please:
1. make your own reservation in The Rembrandt or elsewhere, and
2. inform me, Alan Lord,
of your intention to attend, hotel and mode of transport (can you offer
a lift on Saturday/Sunday?).
The Autumn Ostracod Group meeting will be held in Brighton (University
courtesy of Mick Frogley), dates to be confirmed.
And finally - feel free to forward this message to any interested
colleagues and kindly advise me of any address changes.
See you in Weymouth,
2011 - Meeting Report
Leicester, 4th June, 2011
group photograph, Geology Department, University of Leicester
The meeting was organised and hosted by
David Siveter and Mark Williams in the Department of Geology,
University of Leicester. Our thanks go to David and Mark for this and
to the university for allowing us to use its facilities. With over
twenty people and ten talks this meeting, following on from the
well-attended meeting in October 2010, marks a sustained resurgence in
activity. Matt Wakefield (BG Group) has kindly provided a concise
summary of the talks:
Alan Lord & Maria Cabral
(University of Lisbon) presented "Ostracod evidence and
the Neolithic environment of Rio Sizandro, western Portugal". The
work was based on borehole material from around Benfica that penetrated
river valley deposits, dated at c. 6500-6100yrs BP, which cut into
Upper Jurassic strata. The area was originally flooded with sea-water
but following a sea-level fall (6-7ky BP) the valley began to fill with
sediment, some of which may have been agriculturally mediated. Brackish
water ostracods were present in the base of the succession including
Cyprideis torosa (un-noded) and Leptocythere porcellanea with
occasional Callistocythere murrayi. Rare, poorly preserved freshwater
ostracods (Ilyocypris bradyi, Ilyocypris inermis - a first record in
Portugal, Limnocythere inopinata and Darwinula stevensoni) were also
Dinah Smith (University of Leicester)
discussed some of her doctoral work in the English fens; "Once
upon a time...there was a roddon". So, what
is a roddon? You may indeed ask. Basically it is the dried raised
bed of a river or tidal-creek. They can be seen from aerial photographs
or better still, from IFSAR satellite images and are visible due to
seventeenth century draining leading to the peats drying, shrinking and
compacting thus allowing the sands/silts/gravels of channels to appear
in bas-relief. To date Dinah has been working on describing the
sedimentology of the roddon at the Mist Farm site that was exposed
during quarrying. She has recovered fossil material of foraminifera,
ostracods, fish scales and teeth but hasn?t described them yet.
The work is part of a multi-disciplinary approach with much attention
focused on the archaeology with eel-traps having been found along with
woven nettle material and pots containing food.
(Global Exploration Services)
discussed his Oil Industry related ostracod work: "Early
Cretaceous Pre-Salt basins of the South Atlantic" Ray described
the current two-phase opening of the South Atlantic and how this is
reflected in the stratigraphy of the basins along the West African and
South American margins. The first phase is early Neocomian while the
Barremian Atlantic-Hinge second phase of rifting is of particular
interest as it broke up the large-scale non-marine lacustrine systems
that were contiguous between the now separate continents. The salinity
of there lakes was not controlled by any marine connection. Ray
described the basic ostracod biozonation from the Kwanza Basin and how
it reflects sequence stratigraphy and/or climate forcing. The ostracod
fauna was generally of low diversity but contained high specimen
Ian Boomer & Chris Nash (University of
Birmingham) talked about Chris' final year undergraduate
project entitled "An early post-glacial multiproxy record from
lowland NE England and a new post-Hoxnian record for the UK" .
(Good look with your 'finals' Chris!). This work looked at
sediments inland from Bamburgh Castle, the peaty upper portion of which
have previously been investigated palynologically. Ostracods were
recovered from the lowermost laminated clays and silts dated at 15-20ky
that overlay glacial sediments. Candona candida dominates the fauna
along with the cool-water Cytherissa lacustris and Limnocythere
sussenbornensis. Application of the MOTR method indicates January &
July temperatures of -8 to +3oC and 12 to 23oC respectively.
Siveter (University of Leicester)
talked about "Exceptionally preserved myodocope ostracods from
the Herefordshire (Silurian) Lagerstatte: implications for the
systematic affinity of palaeocopes' and illustrated with computer
3-D animations the latest two ostracods to be discovered: Nasunaris
flata and an as yet unpublished species, informally called 'wingy' due
to its posterero-dorsal ?alae that make it look
like a 1950's Cadillac. These are both Cylindroleberid myodocopes
with preserved softparts including eyes, gill structures and well
developed second antennae suggesting a nektobenthic life mode. Both are
huge ostracods 10-12mm in length. What is of particular interest is
that the hard-part morphology indicates that these species ought to be
palaeocopes but the soft-parts clearly show this not be the case,
suggesting our understanding of Palaeozoic ostracod taxonomy may be
erroneous. For further
information on Cylindroleberid ostracods you should check out Anna
Syme's 2007 Ph.D. thesis "A systematic revision of the
Cylindroleberididae (Crustacea: Ostracoda: Myodocopa)", which can
be downloaded here.
Robin Whatley (Aberystwyth University),
following on from David Siveter's theme of the hard parts
can't always be trusted taxonomically, discussed in his
inimitable fashion "An unusual ostracod from down under".
The Australian ostracod in question has many features that are
taxonomically confusing. It was originally thought to be a lancellate
shaped Trachyleberid without an eye tubercle. However, its lateral
flattening and large well-defined marginal areas with numerous normal
pores are also at odds with this. In addition it has a pectodont rather
than an amphidont hinge suggesting it may be an indo-pacific
Pectocytherid. Eventually Robin decided that the presence of five
adductor muscle scars was the defining taxonomic character i.e. the
species is a Bythocytherid, a fact that was agreed upon by many in the
audience. However, work to solve this taxonomic conundrum is set to
continue as Bythocytherids are not known to possess sieve pores. It was
particularly nice to see Robin back in harness after his long illness
Mike Ayress (Ichron Ltd), using data
from Statoil Well 35/a-F-1H defined "A new record of Aratrocypris
from the Early Cretaceous of the North Sea: a range extension for the
genus". This strange looking genus has a 'plough-like' extension to its
anterior margin that is
considered to have been used when feeding across the sediment. It
occurs at two horizons within the well succession; firstly as part of a
reworked Maastrictian assemblage within the Lower Palaeocene and
secondly within the Valhall Formation. The range can now be extended
back from the Coniacian into the Lower Barremian/Hauterivian.
Khan (University of Leicester)
described his doctoral work that asked the question "Do ostracods
define patterns of Ordovician climate change". The end-Ordovician
extinction accounted for 5-10% of all species known at that time,
although ostracods appear not to have been affected. Mohib was able to
show that the late Orovician to early Silurian ostracods from Iran were
similar to those from the US, i.e. ostracods from Gondwana, Laurentia
and Baltica were similar. Recent isotopic data suggests that for much
of Ordovician times the earth experienced a 'greenhouse'
climate, although a glaciation is known from the end of that period.
Chitinozoan data suggest movement of an oceanic 'polar
front' from 60oS to 40oS during this late Ordovician interval.
Using ordination analysis of ostracod data, Mohib separated out two
ostracod biotopes within data from six Laurentian localities of
Carodocian age. These are believed to represent tropical and
Dave Horne (Queen Mary University of London)
talked about his recent sabbatical in Gatineau and Ottawa, Canada,
where he worked on "The Delorme Collection and database of
Canadian non-marine ostracods". Denis Delorme's collection
amounts to some 30,000 ostracod records from 5,000 separate locations.
The database records locations, species identifications and highly
detailed environmental information both chemical and physical. The
sampling was often based on a systematic grid (selecting the nearest
water body to the grid point) or along major highways. Dave is trying
to harmonise North American and European non-marine ostracod taxonomy.
He suggested that Candona acutula Delorme 1967 may be synonymous with
Fabaeformiscandona levanderi (Hirschman 1912) although further work is
required. Dave has also chased down the actual location of all the
type-material and this will be documented in a forthcoming publication.
Finally, Dave showed us some images that suggested his sojourn in
Canada was not all work-oriented, including a striking photograph of
him wearing a hat we had not seen before.
Boomer, Sarah Hawkes & Phil
Copestake talked about "Early Jurassic Microfossils and
the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (TOAE) in SW England". A new
section at Hurcott, near Ilminster in Somerset has become available
has alternating muds, silts and friable limestones of latest
Pleinsbachian through Toarcian age. The ostracods recovered by Sarah in
her final year undergraduate project from this shallow-water succession
can easily fit into the existing ostracod zonation for this time
period. The foraminiferal fauna recovered was more diverse than the
ostracod fauna, though the former were all long- ranging so could not
help refine the age dating. C isotopic work on the Hurcott section and
that at Mochras reveal the position of the OAE but the former is
shelfal, not basinal. Further work is planned in Gloucestershire, at
Thorncome in Dorset and from the Kerr-McGee 97/12-1 well in Lyme Bay to
understand the development of the TOAE in shelfal settings.
later ... John Whittaker (NHM)
writes: After the scientific meeting most of the party stayed on into
the Saturday evening and, accompanied in many cases by our wives,
proceeded to the "White Horse", Leire, quite near to the
Siveters' country residence. Like the famous Monsieur Rick of the
film Casablanca, the proprietor, also called Rik, did us proud.
It was hoped, with a well-known and successful entrepreneur in our
presence, that the wine might be sponsored, but even though this was
not to be, a most pleasant dinner was enjoyed by all. David and Pauline
Siveter are also to be gratefully thanked for their personal
hospitality to several members of the group.
Meeting 2010 - Meeting Report
The meeting was organised and hosted by Alan Lord and chaired by John Whittaker in the Arthur Holmes
Room of the Geological Society of London, Burlington House, Piccadilly.
gave a short update on the latest TMS Special Publications available
via the Geological Society Publishing House. Initial reviews of
"Ostracods in British Stratigraphy" have praised its
presentation and quality of its plates, thoroughly recommending its
purchase. John also described the official launch of the "Curry
Volume" in Chichester on October 2nd attended by Dennis'
(Natural History Museum) started off proceedings by showing us a series
of beautiful 3-D plastic models (c.15cm long) of Pattersoncypris
micropapillosa Bate 1972, created from the 3-D computer scans taken at
the ESRF synchrotron at Grenoble. Apparently the models are created
using two lasers focussed in to a bath of liquid resin that hardens
where the beams cross. Ray Bate, who is donating them to the NHM,
kindly paid for the models. Other models of such scans now form a
display at the NHM based on recent research published in Science
suggesting that ostracods were reproducing using giant sperm as far
back as the Cretaceous (see TMS Newsletter No. 80, p.19 and search for
ostracod on www.esrf.eu).
(University of Birmingham) has just started work on some Miocene
(probably Burdigallian) ostracods from sediments around Lake Victoria
(Kenya). Samples were provided by Laura Basell (University of
Southampton) as part of a palaeoarchaeological study sponsored by a
NERC URGENCY grant. The sediments are full of vertebrate fossils
(turtles, crocs, lizards, rhino and even the tusk of a proto-elephant).
Large numbers of worked stones by early hominins are also common in the
study area. The freshwater ostracods are dominated by Limnocythere with
Illycypris, Heterocypris, Potamocypris and Darwinula but few if any
Candonids. Preservation was variable from good to clearly
(Queen Mary, University of London) described the history behind finds
of Terrestricythere in the UK, the genus first being described from the
Far East. The genus lives in brackish waters but is able to crawl
around in damp vegetation free of water. A new record of
Terrestricythere from Tollesbury in Essex, was studied by Lauradana Day
and Toyah Parker as part of their undergraduate degrees. Lauradana
examined cores from Tollesbury to ascertain if there was a fossil
record of the ostracod or whether it was a recent 'invader'. To date,
although common on the
?surface?, none has been seen from the core. However as
agglutinating foraminifera, but no calcareous foraminifera, are present
it suggests that decalcification may be an issue.
has just started her doctoral work at Queen Mary, University of
London (supervised by Dave Horne and Steve Brooks), initially looking
at Hoxnian interglacial sediments (MIS11) at Beeches Pit, West Stow in
Suffolk. Ginny is utilising the Mutual Ostracod Temperature Range
(MOTR) methodology developed by Dave Horne, in conjunction with
chironomid temperature data. Initial results suggest a mean temperature
in winter (Jan) of -8oC (range -10 to -2oC) and in summer (June) of
+20oC (range 16-22oC). Work will continue to refine the MOTR
(UCL) discussed Holocene ostracods from a core provided by Matthew
Jones (University of Nottingham) from Lake Pareshan in SW Iran. The
ostracod assemblages are dominated by Cypideis torosa (lower
succession) and Limnocythere inopinata (upper succession) with a switch
over at c.2ky. Non-marine ostracods are sensitive to solute chemistry
(rather than salinity per se) with C. torosa preferring a Na/Cl brine
with an alkalinity/Ca ratio <1 and L. spinosa favouring a ?Na-CO3
brine with an alkalinity/Ca ratio >1. However, there is no know
solute pathway to explain the switch in the middle of the core (also
seen briefly in the lower part of the core; c.4ky) in terms of
evaporation alone, suggesting a switch in water source and the
hinterland geology it flowed from, though this requires further
(University of Liverpool) described his doctoral work on Holocene
deposits form the south-western Black Sea. Lee is working in
conjunction with another doctoral student, Lorna Williams, who is at
Memorial University, Newfoundland, each looking at different cores.
Having already examined the dinocysts Lee has only recently started
looking at the ostracods (pollen and geochemistry studies still to
come). Lee has documented a switch from brackish to marine conditions
at c.7.5ka using both dinocysts and ostracods. However, this switch,
marking the reconnection of the Black and Mediterranean seas was
gradual rather than sharp.
(University of Portsmouth) and Dave Horne described the sediments and
ostracods, respectively, from the Wessex Formation (Barremian) on the
Isle of White. Most of the formation is heavily influenced by
Cretaceous pedogenesis with few fossils evident. The ostracods were
only found in a small number of "plant debris beds" (6 out
of the 27 that had vertebrate finds). These are thought to form as
flood debris beds following post lightening induced wild fires and
subsequent heavy rains. The ostracod fauna is dominated by Cypridea (4
spp) and the oldest known member of the Notodromadinae. A short video
of modern Notodromas monacha illustrated their unique lifestyle
attached upside down to the underside of the water surface on a
distinctive ovate flattened area on their ventral surface, where they
feed on the hyponeuston.
(University of Coventry) continued his discourse on the temporal
biogeographical distribution of North Atlantic and Arctic cold-water
shallow marine ostracod species from previous meetings. Adrian
described the fauna from early Pliocene (OIS Si4 and/or Si6;
c.4.6-4.9Ma) sediments from the West Netherlands Basin. The section
studied was 125m think, marine at the base and showing freshwater
(riverine?) influence at the top, though the talk concentrated on the
basal marine succession. Using Mutual Climate Change indicators,
assisted by having ten extant species, the basal marine section was
shown to have experienced summer water temperatures of less that 10oC
(today?s range is 5-15oC). However, winter temperatures were
little different indicating either deep stable waters or stratification
of the water column at that time. That the opening of the Bering Strait
is dated as c.4.91Ma indicates migration of cold water ostracods into
the Southern North Sea was rapid.
With sixteen people and eight talks this was the largest attendance of
an TMS Ostracod Group meeting for many years. It was encouraging to
meet several 'new blood' young ostracodologists just
starting off on their respective doctoral studies. With the doom and
gloom surrounding the micropalaeontology staff at the NHM this was
indeed welcome news.
All in all this was an excellent meeting, as much for the gathering of
friends as for the quality of the individual presentations. Thanks go
to Alan Lord for organising the room and abstracts pamphlet.
Report compiled by Matt Wakefield (BG Group)
Meeting 2010 - Report
11-14th June, Isle of Skye Field Meeting
Day 1 started
with a visit to an estuary at Kyleakin to collect living brackish
ostracods before visiting the coastal SSSI at Ob Lusa. Here Torridonian
sandstones unconformably underlie Hettangian - early Sinemurian strata,
which contain the classic Ob Lusa Coral Bed. The group motored across
Skye to the south west coast bay at Elgol, sampling en route Toarcian
Portree Shale claystones at a roadside cutting beside Loch Slapin and
encountering the island?s vicious predators, Culicoides
impunctatus - Highland Midges. We were able to offset much of
their attack with a "So Soft Skin" spray, but beware chaps,
because one member remarked, "Oh, it makes you smell
lovely!". Death by a million midge bites sounds almost
preferable! Most of the afternoon was taken up in the west coast bay at
Elgol, where splendid foreshore exposures of Bajocian - Bathonian
(Great Estuarine Group) deltaic and lagoonal clastics were viewed in
gloriously sunny weather. Here abundant specimens of conchostracans,
darwinulids (alicenulids) and even stromatolites could be seen in the
Lealt Shale Formation, a locality featured in Matt Wakefield?s
Here we see the group at Elgol. Back row
Nikky Johnson, Ginny Benardout, Dave Horne and Colin Harris and front
row, Minoo Lord, Nikky's dog Tia and Alan Lord (photo courtesy of
Such was the interest in the palaeontology and geology of this bay,
that the group agreed unanimously to remain there rather than visit
Skye's Talisker Distillery. Now, a decision like that must be a
first for any ostracod field trip! We took in spectacular Torridonian
fluvial sandstone sedimentary structures on the delightful single track
road which leads to the old ferry at Kylerhea. This winding road puts
you in mind of the one travelled by Richard Hannay (Robert Donat) in
Hitchcock?s 1935 version of "The Thirty-Nine Steps".
On Day 2,
we journeyed to the north of the island to collect from Robin
Whatley's now classic Staffin Bay location, where material from
the marine Callovian - Oxfordian Staffin Shale Formation is exposed in
cliffs and across the rocky foreshore. We visited Kilmaluag Bay, where
brackish lagoonal clastics of the late Bathonian Kilmaluag Formation
yielded specimens of (amongst others) Theriosynoecum spp., clearly
visible on bedding surfaces. The final highlight of the day was at an
idyllic setting on a coastal meadow bedecked with Ragged Robins and
Northern Marsh Orchids beneath the ruins of Duntulm Castle, erstwhile
home of the Macdonalds. Here a freshwater seepage yielded up specimens
of the living endemic British ostracod Psychrodromus robertsoni.
Mention must also be made of the leaders' restaurant choice. On
Kyle Railway Station is "The Seafood Restaurant", where
excellent fresh produce is served. This location provided the perfect
finale to both days.
It is hoped that Alan and Dave will run this trip again as it maintains
the Society's high standards, and is of interest not only to
ostracod workers for the abundance of its microfaunas but also to
explorationists for its range of Hebridean Basin Jurassic strata of
marine, deltaic, lagoonal and fluvial origin.
And finally, for those old enough to remember, the Rent-A-Wreck Award
for crashing a car (amongst previous winners are Eric Robinson and Tom
Kilenyi) remains in abeyance as no damage to vehicles was reported,
despite the narrow switchback roads we encountered on Skye.
Report by Colin Harris (RPS Energy)
Report on the
16th International Symposium on Ostracoda (ISO 16):
Biostratigraphy and Applied Ecology
Sixteenth International Symposium on Ostracoda (ISO 16), organized in
Brasilia on 'Biostratigraphy and Applied Ecology " by Professor
Dermeval A Do Carmo University of Brasilia was held from July 26 to 30.
This Congress was sponsored by the IRGO (International Research Group
on Ostracoda), PETROBRAS and the Brazilian Paleontological Society.
About a hundred experts attended the meeting, from 23 countries:
Argentina, Austria, Australia, Belorussia, Belgium, Brazil, China,
France, Germany, Great-Britain, India, Italia, Japan, Luxembourg,
Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Switzerland, Thailand,
Turkey, United States.
and posters, numbering 101, including 4 invited conferences were
divided in 8 sessions! Biology, Morphology and Morphogenesis (8),
Biogeography and Paleobiogeography (18), Biostratigraphy (7),
Freshwater Ecology and Environmental Reconstructions (174), Marine
Ecology and Environmental Reconstructions (7), Paleolimnology and
Paleoclimates (6), Paleoceanography and Paleoclimates (6), Systematics
and Evolution (32).
The 4 invited lectures were presented by K. Martens, Belgium
(Zoogeography on non-marine Ostracoda), R. Matzke-Karasz, Germany
(Synchrotron holotomography ostracods in research - an assessment of
prospects and limits), J.-P. Colin, France (Marine ostracods at the K /
T boundary: state of knowledge) and J. Salas, Argentina (Diversity
Patterns of Ordovician ostracods from Argentina). The prize for best
oral delivery for students (Sylvester-Bradley award) went to Laurent
Decrouy Lawrence (University of Lausanne, Switzerland) for his
brilliant presentation "Controlling factors valve geochemistry of
ostracods: insights from analysis of live species in Lake Geneva
(Switzerland). It must however be noted that although the year 2009 be
the Year of France in Brazil, only 2 representatives of our countries
attended this international event (including one whose travel and
subsistence was paid by Brazil ? guess who!, the other an
unemployed enthusiastic post-doc who paid from his own pocket!).
Oral presentations will be published after approval in a special issue
of the journal Hydrobiologia In addition to the oral sessions and
poster presentations, participants have visited the city of Brasilia,
capital of Brazil, the work of architect Oscar Niemeyer and urban
planner Lucio Costa, which will turn 50 in 2010. A workshop entitled
"Procedures in micropaleontologic curatorship" was also organized by G.
Miller the Natural History Museum in London. In replacement of Koen
Martens whose term expired, Renate Matzke-Karasz was elected new
president until the next Congress IRGO (ISO 17) to be held in Rome in
2013 and is organized by Elsa Gliozzi University of Rome (Italy).
The abstract submission deadline has been extended to 30th March.
Ostracod Group will hold
its Spring Meeting in 2009 (Darwin Year) at Down
House in Kent, the former home of Charles Darwin which
re-opens to the public in
February following extensive conservation and restoration work. The
the theme "Ostracods and Evolution", will take place on Saturday 25th
Sunday 26th April. The organisers are Dave Horne (Queen Mary
University of London) and John Whittaker (The Natural History Museum).
provisional schedule is as follows:
10.00. Meet at Down
10.15 - 12.15. Multimedia
tour of the house and gardens (public access).
12.15 - 13.00. Light lunch
in the Tea Room at Down House.
13.00 - 17.00. Private
meeting in the Board Room of Down House: talks on the theme of
Field trip to Lower Thames
interglacial sites, with a focus on the theme of "Ostracods and Human
Evolution", considering the occupation of Britain
by hominids (Homo
heidelbergensis, H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens) and
about the environments and climates in which they lived. The main site
the SSSI in Greenlands Pit at Purfleet (MIS 9), featured in a new
study (Bridgland et al. in press) but may include visits to other key
such as Swanscombe (MIS 11) and Aveley (MIS 7).
Accommodation will be
arranged at a convenient location, with the option of (1) Friday and
night or (2) Saturday night only; further details will be circulated to
who have expressed interest in the meeting and will also be posted on
the small size of the
Board Room and its hire cost the meeting will be limited to a maximum
participants and a registration fee of £10 per person will be
(but this includes the multimedia tour, for which the normal charge for
adult is £9). Expressions of interest and offers of talks
(with a title
and a short abstract) should be submitted 30th March to Dave Horne.
This is a fantastic opportunity to participate in
a scientific meeting at a unique venue!
Reports from previous Ostracod Group meetings and International
Ostracod meetings. More
related WWW links More